Within 40 CFR 60, Appendix A, there are several Federal Reference Methods (FRMs) which are used to monitor both the oxides of sulfur and reduce sulfur compounds. As you recall, Federal Reference Methods 6 and 8 deal with the oxides of sulfur. Federal Reference Methods 15, 15A, 16, 16A, and 16B deal with the reduced states of sulfur and total reduced sulfur (TRS) compounds.
New techniques have developed over the last several years in monitoring reduce sulfur compounds. Recently, field and laboratory test have demonstrated the applicability of specially-treated interior whole-air canisters as a sampling mechanism for reduce sulfur compounds. In this application, a gas sample is extracted from the source through a heated sample probe directly into a heated specially-treated interior whole-air canister. After extraction, the canister (still heated) is immediately taken to an on-site laboratory for analysis using gas chromatography coupled to a flame photometry detector or a mass spectrometer. The National Council for Air and Stream Improvement (NCASI) has validated this method (using Method 301) for many organic HAPs, and some reduce sulfur compounds from Kraft recovery boilers.
Other techniques include extractive FTIR, portable gas filter correlation (GFC) systems, ion mobility, specific gas permeation cells and a variety of continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMs). Other techniques for monitoring reduce sulfur compounds from industrial sources can be found in a variety of databases.
There are many different databases available for assisting the analyst in determining which sampling and analytical procedure to use for a particular analyte. Most of the databases are multi-media, containing information involving both water, soil, hazardous waste and air. Some of the more useful databases are:
- Lewis Publishing Company, Compilation of EPA’s Sampling and Analysis Methods Database.This database contains 650 method and analyte summaries. Each summary includes method name and EPA number, analyte, CAS registry number, instrumentation, method detection limits, sampling and sample container requirements, and more.
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA Environmental Monitoring Methods Index (EMMI) Database, National Technical Information Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA, 22161, (703) 487-4650, E-mail: Info@NTIS.FEDWORLD.GOV, Internet: https://www.ntis.gov. The EMMI database is an automated inventory of information on environmental significant analytes monitored by the EPA and methods for their analysis. The EMMI System serves for enhancement and national distribution to Regional EPA laboratories and offices as the single authoritative source for cataloguing the Agency’s analytical methods. The EMMI database includes information on more than 2,600 analytes from over 80 regulatory and nonregulatory lists and more than 900 analytical methods.
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Air Methods Database, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, Edison, NJ, (908) 321-6738. The Air Methods Database is a PC-based software package which allows the user to access summarized standard methods for chemical sampling and analysis associated with air emissions. These summaries are used by the user as tools for applicability of a method for an analyte, method detection limits, operating range, and interference’s of the method and the type of media and sampler used top collect the analyte.
In addition, NTIS publishes each year a pamphlet entitled: Environmental Software and Datafiles which contain additional sources of current sampling and analytical methods and simulation models, software and datafiles containing test results and chemical properties, and statistical methods.